Woman in the world
Women evolution in the world
Women’s influence in society, the economy, and politics continues to grow. While women around the world recognize that women generally outnumber men in education, there is still a significant gap in career opportunities, not to mention inequality. Women’s empowerment – that is, increased choice – is progressing in every country in the world, but is manifesting itself in different ways in different societies. The economic transformation resulting from the economic crisis will decisively drive the female shift to the mega trend in the coming years.
Women on the way to equality
According to the World Economic Forum’s latest report, much-discussed gender disparities have been closed in recent years, primarily in the areas of education and health. The Global Gender Gap Report has been examining global gender equality for seven years. Factors that narrow the gender gap include access to health care, access to education, political participation and economic equity. Even in developing countries, women now enjoy the same access to higher education and work as men. However, the gender gap remains wide in terms of leadership positions, earning potential, and career levels.
Politicians could play an important role in promoting the male trend of female gender change, with a judicious decision on the quota for women or the future development of childcare facilities, but this is currently done in its own way and too often insists on the status quo of what has been recently adopted. The feminization of society today is no longer driven by socio-cultural value change, but primarily by economic change and reorientation. The main drivers of this development are briefly described below.
Women have better educational opportunities
UN women clearly have a head start in terms of graduation in Germany. The largest percentage of female students complete high school (38.2%). 33% of young women hold a high school diploma and only 15.9% are satisfied with a high school certificate. Young men, however, are more sparing in their thirst for education: 24.5% have only a secondary school diploma in Germany.
Worldwide, UNESCO observes a general increase in the number of students attending secondary school: from 1970 to 2009, the overall gross enrollment rate rose on average from 48% to 69% for men and from 39% to 47% for women. The highest growth rates for women in secondary school are clearly those that are gaining education worldwide. In Qatar, Libya, Lesotho, and Suriname, gender differences are particularly pronounced, favoring female students. If young women have successfully completed primary and secondary education, they are unstoppable. “UNESCO’s Global Atlas on Gender Equality in Education” shows clear advantages for women in higher education, not only in North America and Western Europe, but also in East Asia and the Pacific, and in Latin America and the Caribbean. Women are clearly the winners in education worldwide.
Women have more choices in an individualized society
Emancipation does not mean equality but freedom of choice. Never before have we had such an ambitious generation of women as we have today. Women see themselves as empowered and confident, across all generations. 50% of 14 to 29 year olds in the Allensbach and Advertising Media Analysis market said this (up from 38% in 1990). The 30 to 49 year olds are even more confident, at 54% (40% in 1990). Self-confidence has almost doubled since 1990 in the 50+ generation: from 25% at age 50 to 49%. On average, about half of the women under 64 years of age want to be independent through a profession. By the way, men also want confident women as partners: for almost 50% of young men aged 16 to 29, their partner’s self-confidence is a very important characteristic, while for those over 30, it is well over 34%.
Women around the world are convinced that they have better chances than their mothers. Nielsen’s “Women of Tomorrow” study currently shows the increased confidence of women in the Western world, but also in emerging markets. Nearly 80% of women in developed markets believe that the role of women will change, with 90% believing in positive development. “Women told Nielsen that they feel empowered to achieve their goals and get what they want, but at the same time, that level of self-esteem creates additional stress,” said Susan Whiting, vice president of Nielsen. For key decisions, women surveyed in developed markets want to share responsibility for everything from childcare to major purchasing decisions. There are still traditional roles in emerging markets, but there is also a desire for shared responsibility. Men in emerging markets are still seen as a last resort for buying consumer and home electronics and automobiles, while women have a firm grasp on health, cosmetics and all the childcare issues.
The degree of individualization of a society is particularly evident in the following indication: while more than half of women in emerging markets want to invest additional money earned over the next five years in their children’s education, they represent only 16% in Western countries. Investing in one’s own well-being: vacation (58%), food (57%) or debt repayment (55%). In contrast, vacations play a secondary role in emerging markets. Women are clearly the winners in education worldwide.
Women have new roles and values
The increase in women’s self-esteem, of course, also affects the choice of partner or the way relationships are conducted. Family change and gender role readjustment are at the forefront The coding of intimacy and romance is increasingly moving into the realm of the tension of love, sex and partnership. Not only patterns but gender identities are blurring. The coding of intimacy and romance is changing. New sexual and partnership arrangements are pushing niches into the mainstream. Living together – According to a recent Allensbacher analysis, every eighth couple in Germany lives apart, especially young couples (43% of 16-29 year olds).
Today, marriage is falling further and further behind: in 1970, the proportion of married women under 30 was 43%, compared to only 11% today. Even since 1990, the share has dropped by two-thirds. After all, marriage is no longer a prerequisite for having children. Single parenting is already normal in Germany today: 1.6 million single parents are available, which corresponds to a share of all families of 19.4% (2010), with an upward trend over the past 15 years. 90% of single parents are women. In addition, the number of women who consciously oppose children is also increasing: among women born in 1970, more children with no children (26%) than one child (23%).
Women in a man's world
Women are moving with expanded choice into former male domains as well – whether in career or leisure choices. Young women, especially academics, have already conquered male-dominated professional fields as doctors, lawyers or economists. Approximately 61% of female students are in the human medicine program compared to just under 45% 20 years ago. The proportion of female doctors has also increased from about 10% to 43% during this period.
Due in part to the 2006 Football World Cup in Germany, we are seeing an increased interest in the former male sport par excellence, even among women. For years, the number of female members of the German Football Association. 1.08 million female footballers are in 2012, an increase of almost 30% compared to 2000.
Women change roles like new man
Many women are now (also) finding personal fulfillment at work. For men, this means not only recognizing that their partner’s work is more important than expected, but also finding that they have to do more work at work for the family. Markus Theunert, a former representative of the canton of Zurich, summarizes this dilemma in an interview with Brand eins: “90 The new father is the missing emancipation. According to a representative survey of the canton of St. Gallen, the percentage of men who want to be part-time working, but also be more present for the family. But only 13.4% do so. So there is a huge gap between desire and reality. “The magnitude of the difference in the division of labor is illustrated by the fact that even mothers who work full time do 53% of all family work. For men, however, it is only two percent.
The authors of the book “Mom – Why Mothers Want More Work” come to a sobering conclusion: “We, women of the golf generation, studied and worked, we earned money and titles, we slept where and with whom we wanted, we prevented and left. (…) Then we became mothers. And our daily lives resembled those of our grandmothers. “While women generally rethink their motherhood and say goodbye to the idea of the 24-hour mother, the world of work goes a little too far Decoupled from the mandatory presence in companies, the man remains the disruptive factor of modern moms: “The new father is the missing emancipation.” In the future, it will no longer be a question of strengthening the role of women. Introducing men to the new role of women and showing them strategies for dealing with female power.
Parental leave for men
There are now many opportunities and facilities for women to reconcile child and career. But men have similar needs in their work. That’s the result of a series of studies from the Boston College Center for Work & Family. Some men rethink their career plans after the birth of their child and retire from work to become a “good father.” Good fathering for most means giving the child love and emotional support, being actively involved in the child’s life, and being a teacher, coach, and role model. Ninety-nine percent of the 1,000 working fathers surveyed said their boss’s expectations after the child’s birth were the same or higher. Sixty-five percent believed that both parents should be equally concerned about parenting, with 70 percent admitting that in reality things are different. The fact that men want to be equally involved in child rearing has not yet arrived and is accepted in many areas of society.
The fact that men even stay at home to strengthen their position vis-à-vis women in the highest positions is no longer a rarity. Seven of the 18 women currently running a Fortune 500 company have or have had a domestic. Each father is increasingly involved in changing the role of caregiver to the other. In Germany, the fourth largest husband (25.3%) now takes parental leave. Although they usually only stay at home for the minimum period of two months in order to extend the reference period of the couple’s parental allowance. Nevertheless, it is evident that even fathers are increasingly involved in the change of role from provider to caregiver.
The economy becomes feminized
The majority of women in Germany still prefer to play the role of mother, but only 14% want to be the crickets around the house, watching over the children and the cones full-time. 59% consider themselves to be a mother with a part-time job, 18% even a full-time mother. CHILDREN AND careers are the greatest desire of most women.
The fact that more and more women are in the workforce around the world raises the question of how to balance work and family life. While only 60% of men and 47% of women were employed in Germany in 1960, the genders have become increasingly close over the years. In 2011, only 81% of men were doing maintenance, but now 71% of women.20 In the EU, the employment rate for women has increased by more than 10% since 1992 and is 62.3% in 2011. The leading countries are the Scandinavian countries with a quota of over 75%.21 Although three out of four women work in these countries, the birth rate is surprisingly high. Provocatively put: female work clearly promotes fertility! In Iceland the birth rate is 2.2 children per woman, in Sweden, Norway and Denmark the average number of children is just under 2 (compared to 1.4 in Germany).22 The reason for this is the improved employment opportunities for mothers of young children in Germany. these countries.
More and more women are also seeking positions in corporate management. Of the four million people in management positions in private companies in Germany, 30% are women. This corresponds to an increase of 8% since 2001. In the civil service, the proportion of women is even 53%. In total, 37% of German managers are women. According to a study by the consulting firm Booz & Company, Germany ranks eighth in the statistics of countries with the highest number of women in senior management worldwide. Australia tops the global ranking, followed by Sweden, Norway and the Netherlands.
Balanced gender relations are good for the economy
And yet, there is still much to be done to mainstream gender in the German economy. Although the gender pay gap has steadily decreased in recent years, women are still at a disadvantage when it comes to pay: the executive pay gap has been reduced by 9% since 2001 and now stands at 21%. The difference in earnings between women and men in the overall labor market is 23%. As the Booz Report argues, the case for a balanced relationship between men and women has very clear economic benefits. The male-industry growth model has reached its limits and society shows: German economic output could increase by 4% if gender relations were balanced. Petra Jenner, CEO of Microsoft in Switzerland, says it more provocatively in her book “With Mind and Heart”: “Our economy will be exhausted in the long run and will fail if it continues to be run mainly by men!” She calls for constructive group intelligence in the company, creating a balance between female and male leadership style.
In the end, it will not be so much socio-cultural factors as economic factors that will anchor the megatrend at the level of the great female transition in society. The transformation of women is probably due more to the structural economic crisis and the tapping of unused female labor potential as a result of the aging of society than to “voluntary” processes of value change. Womanomics describes this increase in women’s power in a changing economic system. The male-industrial growth model has reached its limits: as traditional industrial production has migrated to emerging markets or become fully automated, many traditional jobs have come under pressure. The financial crisis has made it clear that the growth rates of the last decade were based on risky human behavior. The problem of the structural growth deficit in Western countries can only be mitigated by a different role for women and a new leadership culture.
Women's service market family
The decision for children is increasingly made by women today. This opens up the potential for new family markets: from family planning dating services to time-saving services for stressed-out mothers and fathers. If both parents are working, organizational skills are needed and tasks need to be delegated to professional external service providers. According to a study by the Institute of German Economics, 4.5 million domestic helpers are employed in Germany. These time-saving, in-depth support markets will continue to become more professional in the coming years.
Today, the majority of people in the world still want to find love for life. Yet this seems increasingly difficult in a world of seemingly endless choices. In Germany, seven million people are looking for a partner online, often after a divorce or separation. Online dating is a quick shortcut to love. In China, dating via online dating sites is one of the preferred routes for women (78%) and men (81%). Especially in countries with an unbalanced gender ratio (such as China or India), real growth markets are emerging for matchmaking and dating agencies.
Women's market support new men
Men are “encouraged” by gender equality efforts in work, education and private life to adapt their roles, desires and needs to changing situations in their private and professional lives. This creates considerable pressure to conform and leads to conflict and difficulty. They need actual help: whether it is the right choice of shirt for the work meeting, the right temperature of the bottle or the preparation. Conservation and help in the markets make the stressed person a “new” dinner man. Products and services need to be more responsive to the new realities of men’s lives (fatherhood, housekeeping, etc.). The professional world must also react and consider male employees as fathers with caring duties. Research has shown that measures such as childcare, maternity and paternity leave, part-time work and teleworking pay off. The immediate positive effects not only exceed the costs of the measures, but also promote employee motivation and loyalty.
New strategies for a feminized society
In most cases, women and men have equal opportunities in health and education. Women are even considered educational winners around the world. More and more women are working and increasingly seeking leadership positions because of their excellent education. We describe this increase in women’s power in a changing society as Womanomics. Female change is also changing the lives of men. In the future, it will be necessary to highlight the strategies of the “new men” in order to cope with the feminization of society.